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Viernes 28 de Noviembre de Es necesario activar Javascript para visualizarla. Recent meta-analyses have found no association between heart disease and dietary saturated fat; however, higher proportions of plasma saturated fatty acids SFA predict greater risk for developing type-2 diabetes and heart disease. These observations suggest a disconnect between dietary saturated fat and plasma SFA, but few controlled feeding studies have specifically examined how varying saturated fat intake across a broad range affects circulating SFA levels.

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Viernes 28 de Noviembre de Es necesario activar Javascript para visualizarla. Recent meta-analyses have found no association between heart disease and dietary saturated fat; however, higher proportions of plasma saturated fatty acids SFA predict greater risk for developing type-2 diabetes and heart disease.

These observations suggest a disconnect between dietary saturated fat and plasma SFA, but few controlled feeding studies have specifically examined how varying saturated fat intake across a broad range affects circulating SFA levels. Sixteen adults with metabolic syndrome age Whereas plasma saturated fat remained relatively stable, the proportion of palmitoleic acid in plasma triglyceride and cholesteryl ester was significantly and uniformly reduced as carbohydrate intake decreased, and then gradually increased as dietary carbohydrate was re-introduced.

The results show that dietary and plasma saturated fat are not related, and that increasing dietary carbohydrate across a range of intakes promotes incremental increases in plasma palmitoleic acid, a biomarker consistently associated with adverse health outcomes.

All relevant data are within the paper. And Veronica Atkins Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. To accomplish these goals requires limiting whole foods that contain saturated fat e. A reduction in dietary saturated fat typically results in greater carbohydrate intake. A consequence of consuming dietary sugars and starches above levels that can be directly oxidized is that a greater proportion is converted to fat i.

The major product of DNL is palmitate , a saturated fatty acid SFA , but monounsaturated fatty acids MUFA are also formed as a result of desaturation, most notably palmitoleic acid cisn Palmitic and total SFA are usually significant predictors as well.

Thus, a large body of evidence indicates that higher proportions of blood SFA and palmitoleic acid are associated with the pathophysiology of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. It is commonly believed that circulating fatty acids reflect dietary intake, but the associations are weak, especially for SFA and MUFA. In controlled isocaloric or hypocaloric experiments, when dietary carbohydrate is reduced, circulating levels of lipogenic fatty acids i.

The results of these studies provide credible evidence that plasma SFA correlates poorly with dietary saturated fat and better with carbohydrate, and that plasma palmitoleic acid in particular is metabolically aligned with processing of dietary carbohydrate. Although accumulation of SFA in circulating lipid fractions appears to be modulated by carbohydrate more than dietary saturated fat, there are no controlled studies examining this premise across multiple levels of carbohydrate in the same person.

The aim of this study was to determine how incremental increases in carbohydrate, and decreases in fat, affect plasma SFA and palmitoleic acid in adults with metabolic syndrome who were carefully fed moderately hypocaloric diets for 21 wk.

A primary hypothesis was that, despite consuming substantially higher amounts of saturated fat, plasma SFA would remain unchanged in the context of lower carbohydrate intake.

Plasma palmitoleic acid was hypothesized to decrease sharply after a very low carbohydrate diet and gradually increase as a function of incremental increases in carbohydrate intake. Blood was collected at baseline, after the run-in diet, and after each phase before transition to the next diet to determine fatty acid composition and other blood-borne markers.

Figure 1. Experimental approach. Subjects were medically screened and excluded if they had a diagnosis of Type I or II Diabetes, liver, kidney, or other metabolic or endocrine dysfunction. Physically active participants were asked to maintain their same levels of activity verified by activity records and sedentary individuals did not begin an exercise program in order to limit possible confounding effects on the dependent variables.

Subjects were informed of the purpose and possible risks of the investigation prior to signing an informed consent document approved by the University of Connecticut Institutional Review Board who approved this study. Table 1. Baseline subject characteristics 1. The highest carbohydrate phase C6 was designed to model national dietary recommendations. While carbohydrate was adjusted every 3 wk, total fat decreased proportionately so that total energy remained constant.

Protein was constant at 1. Based on individual resting metabolic needs and activity factors 1. Thus, total caloric and protein intake for each individual did not change throughout the study. Estimated nutrient composition of select diets showed high concordance with chemical analysis Exova, Portland, OR. For each diet phase 7-day rotational menus were developed that included a wide range of whole foods. Beef, eggs, and dairy were used daily throughout all diet phases as primary sources of saturated fat.

For the low carbohydrate diet phases, higher-fat beef and meats, whole eggs, and full-fat dairy products e. For the higher carbohydrate diet phases with lower saturated fat, leaner versions of beef, egg substitutes, and low-fat dairy e. Whole grain and relatively low glycemic index carbohydrate sources were emphasized. Three-day diet records were utilized to determine nutrient intake prior to baseline and during the run-in diet. Following the run-in period, subjects were provided with all food for 18 wk, which was prepared and packaged by staff in our research kitchen.

All food containers were returned unwashed and inspected to document that all food was consumed. Subjects arrived to the laboratory following a minimum hr fast and hr abstinence from exercise, caffeine, over the counter medications, and alcohol. Body mass was measured using a digital scale Ohaus Corp. Resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation was measured by indirect calorimetry Parvomedics TrueOne metabolic cart in a thermal neutral room.

The metabolic carts were calibrated with a standard gas mixture each morning. Prior to blood collection, subjects provided a small urine sample to assess specific gravity as a measure of hydration. Blood samples were obtained from an arm vein after subjects rested quietly for 15 min in the supine position. Whole blood was collected into tubes with a serum separator and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA.

Tubes with serum separator remained at room temperature for 15 min prior to centrifugation to allow clotting to occur. Subjects returned to the laboratory for a second fasting blood draw 24—48 hr after visit 1 to repeat glucose and lipid testing.

The results from both days were averaged to account for day-to-day variability. Frozen samples were thawed only once before analysis. Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation CV were 5. One subject dropped after completing C4 due to a rise in his blood pressure. The C5 and C6 data were interpolated based on mean percent changes for the group.

A paired samples t-test was used to examine the effects of 6-wk of very low carbohydrate intake Baseline vs C1.

As designed, energy and protein intakes across the 6 diet phases were constant for each person. All diets were well tolerated and compliance was high based on verbal communication and inspection of returned, unwashed food containers. Table 2. Daily nutrient intakes at baseline habitual diet and during each dietary phase 1. Compared to baseline, serum ketones increased approximately 5-fold during C1, 3-fold after C2, 2-fold after C4 and returned to baseline levels by C5.

Respiratory exchange ratio significantly decreased from baseline to C1 0. Figure 2. Significant differences from Baseline vs C1 were determined by dependent t-test and indicated by an asterisk. Different letters at a time point indicate statistical significance. Plasma , the predominant saturated fatty acid, was not significantly different over time in the TG and CE fractions. Plasma is a minor constituent of total fatty acids but in all three plasma lipid fractions it showed more consistent and significant decreases with carbohydrate restriction, and subsequent increases with progressively higher levels of carbohydrate.

As carbohydrate increased, plasma decreased in the TG fraction, but increased in the PL fraction, although the absolute changes were relatively modest. Table 3. Plasma fatty acid responses 1. The subjects demonstrated a wide range of palmitoleic acid levels at any given carbohydrate intake; however there was reduced variance with lower carbohydrate diets Fig 3B. There was also a noticeable uniformity among subjects in their progressively higher palmitoleic acid levels going from low- to moderate- to high-carbohydrate intakes.

Similar to , as carbohydrate increased plasma oleic acid n-9 decreased in the TG fraction, but increased in the PL fraction, although the absolute changes were small. Figure 3. Open circles are subjects who went from low- to high-carbohydrate, and shaded triangles are subjects who went from high- to low-carbohydrate intake. However, a higher proportion of plasma saturated fat is related to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease.

Thus, there is a need to better understand the relationship between dietary and plasma saturated fat. In this study, we sought to shed light on the impact of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate on plasma fatty acid composition. Subjects were studied over 21 wk while consuming diets that were progressively higher in carbohydrate and lower in fat.

The results showed that increasing intake of dietary saturated fat did not accumulate in plasma lipid fractions when carbohydrate was restricted, and moreover when dietary saturated fat intake was decreased there was not a consistent decrease in plasma saturated fat.

Whereas plasma saturated fat did not associate with dietary carbohydrate or saturated fat; plasma palmitoleic acid, a biomarker associated with increased risk of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type-2 diabetes, tracked incrementally with dietary carbohydrate. Several lines of evidence point to endogenously produced palmitoleic acid i. In our previous hypocaloric and isocaloric very low-carbohydrate diet studies, we observed consistent decreases in plasma palmitoleic acid independent of fat composition and weight loss.

The current results provide additional data that dietary carbohydrate is a primary driver of plasma palmitoleic acid. There was remarkable uniformity in the pattern of plasma palmitoleic acid responses as a function of dietary carbohydrate, although the individual trajectories varied. There was also significant variability between individuals during each diet phase with greater variance as carbohydrate increased Fig 3B.

It is difficult to assign a specific threshold above which palmitoleic acid confers an increased risk of developing these conditions. In regards to total plasma SFA, the pattern of response was more variable than palmitoleic acid. The lack of accumulation of this additional saturated fat was likely due in part to greater oxidation of SFA, as indicated by the significant decrease in respiratory exchange ratio during C1. The relative contribution of DNL and fat oxidation and their sensitivity to dietary carbohydrate manipulation likely varies considerably between people and explains the less uniform response in total plasma SFA observed in the current study.

However, the pattern of lower plasma SFA after the low-carbohydrate diet with the highest amount of saturated fat, and numerically higher plasma SFA after the high-carbohydrate diet with the least amount of saturated fat, is consistent with the regulation of DNL and fat oxidation by carbohydrate intake and its effect on the glucose-insulin axis.

The reduced proportion of plasma palmitoleic acid after the low-carbohydrate diet was associated with positive responses in other traditional risk markers. Serum triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and estimates of insulin sensitivity were improved as well. There were several limitations in this study. The diet phases were relatively short to keep the entire feeding portion of study less than 6 months, and by design we created menus that were hypocaloric to induce weight loss.

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Better Wyoming conducted a series of interviews on important state issues throughout Below is an interview with Rep. Lars Lone House District Do you support or oppose the proposed transfer of federal lands to the state government for management or ownership? My theory is that some of those countries that are holding our debt may decide to come back and decide to collect on that debt. Then we will be in the position where we are a mineral-rich state, and my concern is our minerals being sold to somebody that we have no control over.

льготы для ветеранов боевых действий. 1 отменили ли транспортный налог. 3 льготы ветерана труда федерального значения. 7.

Одни травятся, другие - разоряются… Доколе?

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льготы для ветеранов боевых действий. 1 отменили ли транспортный налог. 3 льготы ветерана труда федерального значения. 7.

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