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Laws of Attrition

Finally, it documents the rhetoric of officials and pro-Kremlin media that represents government critics as dangerous enemies. As these laws were being debated and adopted, pro-government media outlets ran propaganda campaigns targeting prominent nongovernmental groups, accusing them of promoting Western interests in exchange for funding. As this report went to press, the government was implementing a nationwide campaign of intrusive government inspections of NGOs.

The inspections could potentially be used to force some organizations to either end certain types of activities or close altogether. A new assembly law imposes limits on public demonstrations and imposes serious, drastic fines on those who violate the law. The new laws, most of them sponsored by the ruling United Russia party, were adopted at breakneck speed: the assembly law, for example, entered into force just 18 days after the lower house of parliament, the State Duma, began debating it.

It equates receiving any foreign funding with being an agent of foreign interests. This new definition leaves broad room for officials to arbitrarily interpret and selectively apply it against individuals engaged in routine discussions with foreign counterparts or presenting human rights reports at international conferences.

The United Nations Committee Against Torture, for example, said the law could be interpreted as prohibiting the sharing of information on the human rights situation in the Russian Federation with the UN. Although Human Rights Watch is not aware of any prosecutions under the new definition, the mere possibility that the law will at some point be applied to silence or retaliate against critics is enough to keep civil society groups, and especially human rights organizations, in a constant state of anxiety.

The law also banned, among other things, persons who have been prosecuted twice or more in one year for violating laws governing public events from organizing protests. Once a website is on the registry, content-hosting providers have 24 hours to notify the website owner to remove the prohibited content.

The website owner is given another 24 hours to comply. If the website owner fails to take down the banned content, Internet service providers must restrict access to the website within 24 hours. The blog was reactivated after the blogger removed the photographs. The second relates to Leonid Razvozzhaev, a political activist charged with organizing mass riots during a May demonstration.

Several days later he reappeared in custody in Russia. Razvozzhaev appears to have been forcibly disappeared and was forced to sign a confession under duress while in incommunicado detention. Razvozzhaev is in custody awaiting trial in Russia. The Russian government should end the crackdown on civil society and instead foster an environment in which civil society can thrive. Specific Additional Recommendations to the Council of Europe:. The report also draws on interviews with activists from Arkhangelsk, Maykop, Kazan, Novocherkask, and Karabulak that were conducted by telephone and by email.

All interviews were done by two Human Rights Watch researchers who are native speakers of Russian, and another Human Rights Watch staffer who speaks Russian fluently. Human Rights Watch also reviewed media interviews with government officials and publicly available official documents including laws and draft laws, explanatory parliamentary memoranda accompanying draft laws, government letters, and official directives. We also attended roundtable discussions on the new NGO law that included Ministry of Justice officials.

In autumn , Putin introduced a number of political reforms, including new election rules for the State Duma the lower house of parliament , that made it significantly more difficult for opposition parties to get seats and provided for the appointment of regional governors, who had previously been elected by popular vote.

A law on NGOs imposed new, onerous reporting requirements on NGOs, especially relating to any foreign sources of funding. The law had a punitive dimension: it authorized government agencies to issue warnings to NGOs for a wide variety of violations, many of them quite minor, such as not filing timely activity reports. The implementation of these regulations granted the government the authority to petition a court to dissolve an organization that has received as few as two warnings regarding the same violation.

The September announcement by Medvedev and then-Prime Minister Putin that they would essentially switch posts triggered public criticism that built rapidly in the lead-up to the December parliamentary elections. Soon after the vote, tens of thousands of people took to the streets to protest alleged election fraud.

Putin won the March 4, presidential election with Law No. It also exempts certain types of noncommercial organizations NCOs : state corporations, state companies as well as NCOs established by them, state and municipal including budgetary institutions, political parties, religious organizations, associations of employers and chambers of commerce.

In addition, the law requires foreign organizations that operate in Russia through their representative offices or branches to conduct a compulsory annual audit by a Russian auditing company and submit the results of the audit to a designated agency, which must publish the results online and distribute them to the media. The law also authorizes government agencies to inspect the registered representative or branch offices of foreign organizations. Secondly, a new article, article As detailed below, Law No.

On several occasions Ministry of Justice officials expressed uncertainty about its competence and willingness to implement it. Implementation became a subject of rare public disagreement among governmental bodies.

For example, at a January roundtable discussion in the Duma a United Russia deputy asked the minister of justice why the law was not being implemented. On February 14, , President Putin told a meeting of Foreign Security Service FSB officials, with the foreign minister, justice minister, and Constitutional Court chair present, that he expected the law to be implemented. These laws, naturally, should be enforced.

Any direct or indirect interference in our internal affairs, any form of pressure on Russia, on our allies and partners is inadmissible. Two weeks later the authorities launched an unprecedented, broad series of inspections of NGOs see below. As evidence of the latter, the prosecutor pointed to a February seminar on US-Russian relations the group had held in which a US embassy staff member participated.

We are agents of Russian citizens. We will continue to receive foreign funding and we will continue to say that openly. Human rights and advocacy groups, confused by vague definitions and the lack of clear procedural steps stipulated in the law, requested that the Ministry of Justice shed some light on the implementation procedure. Other critics of Law No. The inspections were highly extensive, disruptive, and invasive, and seemed aimed at intimidating NGOs. On December 5, , the chief of St.

Petersburg as a regional NGO, it does work in other regions. But now, in the twenty-first year, it happened — surprisingly right after we got a grant from the regional administration and I personally became member of the Presidential Council for Civil Society and Human Rights….

And we can only guess who will come to check us next. As of April 18, , organizations in 54 Russian regions reported to Agora that they had been inspected. Many of the Russian organizations targeted accept some amount of foreign funding, and include groups working on human rights, environmental protection, government transparency, election monitoring, civic education, religious issues, and the like.

Representative offices of foreign organizations, including Human Rights Watch, were also inspected. In most cases of which Human Rights Watch is aware the inspections were carried out by a team of prosecutorial, Ministry of Justice, and tax officials. The scope of the inspections was far-ranging. Inspections of some organizations that work on sensitive issues — for example on the North Caucasus, the Sochi Olympic Games, or police abuse — clearly aimed to intimidate, and in several cases the procedure more closely resembled a police raid than an inspection.

Inspections at the St. Petersburg offices of the Konrad Adenauer and Friedrich Ebert foundations, the foundations of two German political parties, provoked a diplomatic row as the inspectors confiscated computers belonging to the former to allegedly examine them for unlicensed software. The equipment was returned after a demarche made by the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

While inspectors asked some organizations to produce only a standard set of registration, founding, tax, and financial documents, other inspections were more intrusive and demanding.

For example, in St. For instance, Memorial Moscow submitted in total 8, pages of documents for all its five separate legal entities for inspection, and the Foundation for Freedom of Information in St. Petersburg — 4, pages, or 23 kilograms of paper. NGOs had to use their own paper and ink cartridges for this purpose. The inspections were in many cases disruptive and demanding. In some cases the inspections lasted only several hours, but in others they were drawn out over a period of days.

NGOs also spent significant time in the weeks following the initial inspection responding to follow-up requests.

Some inspection teams were polite and respectful, but in other cases they were not. It is not clear what the overall impact of the inspections will be. One possibility is that organizations could receive official warnings for being in violation of any relevant Russian law.

This is a serious matter: as noted above, two official warnings accumulated over an indefinite period can serve as grounds for a court to close an organization. So far, at the time of the writing, most organizations had not learned the outcome of their inspections.

Some had learned the partial outcome. Several organizations have been cited for fire safety and health violations, and at least two have been fined for similar violations.

At least eight human rights NGOs refused to cooperate with the inspections, claiming they were unlawful. The organizations that make up the election-monitoring network Golos, which documented election violations in the November parliamentary vote, are among those hardest hit by the inspection wave.

The Federal Tax Service began inspecting the head office of Golos, in Moscow, a year ago, on April 4, , and as this report went to print the organization was awaiting the inspection outcome report. The results of the inspections were still not known at this writing. As of April 10, all of the seven inter-regional foundations of the Golos network were subjected to tax inspections.

On April 8 the three groups submitted all the requested documents. The draft was endorsed by the Federation Council on October The law also changed the definition of espionage in several ways:.

With the new law entering into force, Russian human rights activists and lawyers expressed concern that the authorities could use it to silence and retaliate against its critics. Many were alarmed that the legislation could criminalize actions of activists and human rights defenders that have been part of normal practice for them both in Russia and around the world, such as routine working meetings and discussions with foreign counterparts or presenting human rights reports at international conferences.

Human Rights Watch is not aware of any cases in which treason charges have been brought under the new amendments. However, the case of Ivan Moseev, an academic from Archangelsk, illustrates how the treason law can be used arbitrarily to justify intrusive surveillance of individuals. In October Moseev was charged with inciting ethnic hatred after a comment attributed to him and containing a derogatory comment about ethnic Russians was posted to the Echo of the Russian North news portal in April Moseev denies posting the comment, claiming that his computer was not turned on at the time.

Moseev appealed the court order, unsuccessfully; on January 17, , the Supreme Court affirmed the legality of the phone tap. On March 1, , a court sentenced Moseev to a , fine for insult, a milder crime than incitement. FSB surveillance against Moseev continues. They would not leave me alone. On December 28, , Putin signed Law No. The law is informally known as the Dima Yakovlev law for the Russian toddler who died in the US three months after he was adopted by an American family.

The Legal Doctrines of the Rule of Law and the Legal State (Rechtsstaat)

Finally, it documents the rhetoric of officials and pro-Kremlin media that represents government critics as dangerous enemies. As these laws were being debated and adopted, pro-government media outlets ran propaganda campaigns targeting prominent nongovernmental groups, accusing them of promoting Western interests in exchange for funding. As this report went to press, the government was implementing a nationwide campaign of intrusive government inspections of NGOs. The inspections could potentially be used to force some organizations to either end certain types of activities or close altogether. A new assembly law imposes limits on public demonstrations and imposes serious, drastic fines on those who violate the law.

Airspace management (ASM) - A planning function with the primary objective of State aircraft and made this information publicly available. годные по медицинскому заключению к летной работе и выполняющие по организации полетов и осуществляет контроль выполнения отданных распоряжений.

This book explores the development of both the civil law conception of the Legal State and the common law conception of the Rule of Law. It examines the philosophical and historical background of both concepts, as well as the problem of the interrelation between the two doctrines. The book brings together twenty-five leading scholars from around the world and provides both general and specific jurisdictional perspectives of the issue in both contemporary and historical settings. The Rule of Law is a legal doctrine the meaning of which can only be fully appreciated in the context of both the common law and the European civil law tradition of the Legal State Rechtsstaat. The Rule of Law and the Legal State are fundamental safeguards of human dignity and of the legitimacy of the state and the authority of state prescriptions. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide.

Зная код, компания сможет отслеживать состояние больничного и начислить пособие. Покупатель, не доверяющий продавцу, может заказать экспертное заключение в выбранной на свое усмотрение компании, но в этом случае клиенту придется оплатить услуги экспертов за свои средства, впоследствии потребовав возмещения трат от продавца (только при установлении брака по причинам, не связанным с действием пользователя). Составить документ можно не только самому, но и у юриста. Итак, накормив маленького шопоголика внутри, чем дальше заняться в Хельсинки. Любой из участников общей собственности на квартиру имеет право выделить отдельную долю, которой он сможет распоряжаться по собственному усмотрению.

При проверке полномочий руководителя юридического лица необходимо обратить внимание на его полномочия, закрепленные в уставе организации. Право, подлежащее применению к отношениям по наследованию.

Лица, не достигшие совершеннолетия. На этот тип тарифных систем оказал большое влияние традиционный в Японии способ найма рабочей силы. Периоды, не относящиеся к осуществлению трудовой деятельности, но включаемые по закону в страховой стаж, должны быть подтверждены соответствующими документами. Поэтому надлежащее оформление документации о премиальных выплатах является важной составляющей внутренней документации любой организации. На видео о поверке газового счетчика.

Узнать бывших собственников квартиры можно непосредственно по адресу. Потом его направляют в учреждение для отбывания наказания. Пустые листы прикреплять к документу не требуется. Закон от 2017 года предусматривает обязательную замену национальных прав на российские в том случае, когда иностранное лицо въезжает в Россию. Продавцу нужно будет получить в суде заверенную судом копию определения об отмене обеспечительных мер. За газоснабжение 50 рублей.

наказания Манфред Новак. Г-н Келин выполняет функции человечности, и что в отношении подозреваемых, в том числе лиц, выполняющих Publicly acknowledge and condemn violence against women and An important draft declaration was prepared affirming the State's determination to.

Законодательство четко устанавливает лицимеющих право наследовать любое имущество умершего. При повторном обращении вам достаточно предоставить паспорт или любой другой документ, удостоверяющий личность, чтобы получить выписку, справку или результаты анализов. Где можно взять кредит.

Человеку необходимо заплатить за процедуру 300 рублей. Плата за эти услуги соразмерна доле каждого собственника или лица, проживающего в общем доме на основании договора. В выбранную организацию заявление необходимо направить заказным письмом с уведомлением о вручении. Если водитель был заключен под стражу, то удерживается только заработок за отработанный период. При фотохронометраже наблюдают не за исполнителями, а за производственным процессом, в рабочих операциях которого постоянно меняется перечень и последовательность выполнения отдельных элементов. После написания непосредственно интересующего вопроса можно выбрать способ получения ответа: на электронный или почтовый адрес.

Так, через 12 месяцев получится сумма, образующая платёжную базу физического лица, которую он должен будет осуществлять ежегодно. В случае, если приобретение автомобиля невозможно накопленными средствами, обратитесь за помощью в банк для оформления кредита. Установив вешки или иные предметы, совершите несколько тренировочных заездов.

При этом также сообщаются место и ориентировочное время получения разрешения. Это обычно прописывается в кредитном договоре, так что должник может смело напомнить коллектору о своих правах. Северный стаж для выхода на пенсию мужчинам. Процедура наследования жилья довольно длительная и состоит из следующего: Первым делом нужно найти сам документ. Надобность в спецтехнике возникает чаще всего не запланировано. В таком случае выбросьте вареные яйца, даже если еще не истек рекомендованный срок хранения.

Как Получить Выписку Из Домовой Книги Если Не Прописан. В виноградной лозе уже содержатся сульфиты, попасть в нее они могут из почвы. Законом предусмотрено, что покупатель имеет возможность вернуть не понравившейся или бракованный товар обратно продавцу и получить взамен свои деньги, без каких-либо потерь.

ВИДЕО ПО ТЕМЕ: Основная процедура проведения сокращения численности или штата работников – Елена А. Пономарева
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