Через сколько нужно менять счетчик на электроэнергию
The invention relates to energy and can be widely used for heating and conditioning industrial, cultural and residential premises, as well as heating water and air cooling for industrial and domestic needs, especially in areas that have only electric electric power or renewable types of energy wind and solar hydropower , which are the cheapest and easiest to convert into electrical energy, and the generated thermal energy without spending it can be used for associated the implementation of technologies such as desalination of sea water by sublimation or drying of various products or linen. Although chillers and heat pumps operate on the same reverse thermodynamic cycles and are not structurally different the difference is only in the temperature ranges of the cycle and in the use of a low-grade waste heat source or cold, if any , the former is widely used in the national economy The USSR received only refrigerators, because otherwise you will not get cold. An alternative to heat pumps, which allows to obtain several times more heat in comparison with the consumed electric mechanical energy, is a simple burning boiler of non-renewable reserves of natural fuel. Due to the fact that in the former USSR, fuel prices were artificially kept at less than 10 times lower than world prices, it is no wonder that low-power hydropower, as well as wind and solar energy and heat production using heat pumps were in the pen, why and we are now spending on a unit of production no less than 3 times more energy than Western countries. Due to the fact that in some countries of the former USSR there are practically no non-renewable fuel reserves, this led to an increase in fuel prices there to a level higher than world prices and an energy crisis, the help in overcoming of which is the aim of the invention. Due to the fact that the population was first and foremost held hostage by the energy crisis, the goal was to create a mass heat pump for autonomous heating of even individual apartments, since the population will inevitably use even home-made units with inefficient electric heaters, further exacerbating the energy crisis.
Если вы хотите узнать, как решить именно Вашу проблему - обращайтесь в форму онлайн-консультанта справа или звоните по телефону
+7 (499) 653-60-72 Доб. 355 Москва и область
+7 (812) 426-14-07 Доб. 525 Санкт-Петербург и область
Это быстро и бесплатно!
Зимой Центральную Азию ждет рост недовольства
The invention relates to energy and can be widely used for heating and conditioning industrial, cultural and residential premises, as well as heating water and air cooling for industrial and domestic needs, especially in areas that have only electric electric power or renewable types of energy wind and solar hydropower , which are the cheapest and easiest to convert into electrical energy, and the generated thermal energy without spending it can be used for associated the implementation of technologies such as desalination of sea water by sublimation or drying of various products or linen.
Although chillers and heat pumps operate on the same reverse thermodynamic cycles and are not structurally different the difference is only in the temperature ranges of the cycle and in the use of a low-grade waste heat source or cold, if any , the former is widely used in the national economy The USSR received only refrigerators, because otherwise you will not get cold.
An alternative to heat pumps, which allows to obtain several times more heat in comparison with the consumed electric mechanical energy, is a simple burning boiler of non-renewable reserves of natural fuel. Due to the fact that in the former USSR, fuel prices were artificially kept at less than 10 times lower than world prices, it is no wonder that low-power hydropower, as well as wind and solar energy and heat production using heat pumps were in the pen, why and we are now spending on a unit of production no less than 3 times more energy than Western countries.
Due to the fact that in some countries of the former USSR there are practically no non-renewable fuel reserves, this led to an increase in fuel prices there to a level higher than world prices and an energy crisis, the help in overcoming of which is the aim of the invention. Due to the fact that the population was first and foremost held hostage by the energy crisis, the goal was to create a mass heat pump for autonomous heating of even individual apartments, since the population will inevitably use even home-made units with inefficient electric heaters, further exacerbating the energy crisis.
Given that the heat pump is an expensive unit for the average family, it is desirable that it does not exceed the cost of, for example, a refrigerator, but at the same time completely replaces it.
In other words, it is necessary to create a combined thermal transformer that simultaneously generates both heat and cold with specific energy costs less than with separate generation of heat and cold, respectively, in a heat pump and a refrigerating machine.
An extremely important parameter of the developed unit, which attracts buyers and manufacturers, can be considered its simplicity and safety so that the first of them can repair it themselves, and the second does not care about the formation of a network of repair shops.
In this regard, the vapor compression machine, widely used in household refrigerators, cannot be taken as a prototype, since they require special working fluids freons, currently prohibited by the UN for use due to their destruction of the ozone layer of the Earth and requiring an absolutely tight system, which you cannot repair at home, although they allow you to realize a thermodynamic cycle close to the reverse Carnot cycle, which has the highest thermal transformation coefficient, the ratio of the total amount of cold and heat to the consumed electric energy.
Thus, non-condensable gas and naturally the most accessible of them air should be selected as the working fluid in the developed heat pump-cooler, which removes the requirements for the tightness of the system and its closure. The efficiency of any heat pump is higher if it uses some kind of low-grade waste heat.
Bazhan, G. Kanevets and V. Seliverstov "Handbook of heat exchangers", M. Mechanical Engineering, Much more efficiently this problem is solved, as it were, along the way with a simultaneous increase in the efficiency of the heat pump in the air conditioner taken for the prototype heater, shown in Fig.
Andryushchenko "Fundamentals of thermodynamics of cycles of heat power plants", M. Higher School, The heating and ventilation installation, taken as a prototype, implements a method of transforming the heat of the environment to produce heat and cold, in particular for a heated and air-conditioned room, namely, that the air taken from the room is compressed in a compressor, the heat of compressed air is transferred to a heat exchanger the heat consumer, in particular, the air entering the ventilated room during the heating season, after which the cooled air is expanded on the turbine and the cold is already transferred to the consumer, in particular, cold air is fed into the ventilated room during the hot season, supplying air to the compressor inlet already from the street, and the compressor is driven from the turbine and from any source of mechanical energy.
In other words, this installation optionally solves the problem of ventilation of the room with full heat recovery, at the same time uses the free source of low-grade heat that has appeared, which increases several times in the installation with a simultaneous increase in its temperature potential and the associated production of cold for domestic needs and air conditioning in the hot season, when the associated heat can be directed not to the heating of the room, but to the heating of water for domestic needs.
At the same time, this installation also has all the disadvantages of an air thermotransformer, which, in contrast to vapor compression, which uses the colossal latent heat of condensation-evaporation of a liquid at constant temperature and pressure, a large temperature difference is required for the accumulation of heat by air, by an amount which should increase the temperature range for the implementation of the reverse cycle of an air thermotransformer, which unambiguously leads to a decrease in the coefficient of thermotransform ii at the same predetermined minimum temperature drop on the walls of the heat exchangers and the heat consumer constant temperature, e.
However, the vapor compression thermotransformer has the disadvantage that it is already impossible to expand the steam condensate after the compressor without large losses on the turbine, and therefore it is practiced simply to throttle the condensate and after its evaporation, it is easier to realize adiabatic compression of dry steam to temperatures much higher condensation temperatures of this vapor at a given pressure behind the compressor, which again leads to a decrease in the coefficient of thermal transformation.
This drawback is not in the air thermotransformer. In this regard, we will use one of the provisions of the theory of solving inventive problems TRIZ, author Altshuller GS , which states that "the development of technical systems goes in the direction of combining them with each other with the aim of sharing resources for further improvement at the level of the supersystem".
In particular, V. Gerasimov and S. In other words, we need to combine both air and vapor compression thermotransformers into one super-system, while eliminating the shortcomings of both.
So, in accordance with the TRIZ logic, a non-condensable gas should be used as a working fluid in the created thermotransformer, i. The most accessible of all the vapors is water, but why then the developers of steam compression heat pumps do not use it. The fact is that in the temperature range, for example, 0 50 o C, the pressure of saturated water vapor is very low and the installation should be with a closed water circuit, tight to the atmosphere, and most importantly the dimensions of the units are so large that the use of water as a working medium you can talk if you need to increase the temperature from to o C, when the thermodynamic cycle will be implemented in the temperature range of pressures atm, and therefore with small volumes of units.
Therefore, the task is to ensure that at temperatures lower than o C, to ensure evaporation and condensation of water in the pressure range that is excessive in relation to atmospheric, so as to have acceptable unit sizes and not be associated with the problem of sealing the installation.
So, mixing water with any gas, for example air, we get a working fluid, which is much more acceptable for a heat pump than separate water and air, since a thermodynamic cycle in any temperature range can be performed at excessive pressures of a mixture of air and water, air under compression in the compressor due to the evaporation of water it will heat up slightly, condensation of water vapor during heat transfer will be carried out in a very narrow temperature range, and the turbine will work with high efficiency, in contrast to purely vapor compression, when boiling Fluid is not expanded with high efficiency, and it is necessary to throttle her.
Therefore, to achieve the goals and in connection with the above, the method of heat transformation taken as a prototype must be supplemented with essential features, namely, that before and or during the compression of air in a compressor, a liquid, for example, water, condensed into the process of heat transfer to the consumer from the air saturated with water vapor after the compressor.
They introduced water as one of the working bodies of the thermotransformer, but we must not forget that water in a particular case is also a consumer of heat, as it is used in heating radiators and for household and hygiene needs of family members and therefore the question arises as to which method is better to transfer water, the available heat of the steam and gas after the compressor.
Traditionally, this is done in a surface-type heat exchanger, and in our case it will be quite effective, since on one side of the wall there is liquid, and on the other, condensed water vapor, which ensures the maximum possible value of the total heat transfer coefficient through the wall. But it would be much more efficient to use these walls to heat the air in the room, and to transfer heat to water, use the volume limited by these walls, moreover with less irreversible energy losses, i.
In this regard, the proposed method of thermotransformation of heat can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that water is transferred to a private consumer of heat from the saturated steam gas after the compressor in the mass transfer apparatus using the counterflow method when water moves from top to bottom and steam from bottom to top.
Having set the water flow rate calculated according to the heat balance equation, it is possible to ensure that the water is heated almost to the gas temperature after the compressor and given part of the water to power the compressor nozzles, the rest can be used for domestic purposes or in a water heating system, after which it is already used as an intermediate coolant for heating other working fluids, for example, air coming from the street into the room, and with the help of the same most modern heat and mass transfer apparatus.
This could not be done without an intermediate heat transfer medium, since the gas and steam behind the compressor and the outside air have different pressures and cannot be equalized, while during the throttling of hot water its heat content will not change at all, and the loss of its potential pressure energy will be negligible but also this energy can be taken using a hydraulic turbine.
Hot water can also be used for regenerative heating of air at the compressor inlet, which, incidentally, is inconceivable in vapor compression thermotransformers as well as the recovery of heat replaced by the outside air of the air already used in the room, since they work in a well-defined predetermined range temperatures, which can only be changed by changing the compression ratio of the compressor, and the introduction of surface-type heat exchangers for this is absolutely unpromising.
In the proposed water-air thermotransformer, the introduction of heat recovery using heat and mass transfer apparatuses with virtually no irreversible energy loss will allow to widely control the degree of heating of steam and gas at a selected relatively small degree of pressure increase in the compressor.
But in the absence of heat recovery, the air entering the compressor would have to pay an expensive price to increase the degree of increase in pressure in the compressor for increasing the degree of heating of working heat in the compressor, or, in other words, expand the temperature range for heating gas and steam in a turbocompressor, and therefore, deliberately reduce the coefficient thermal transformations even when, according to the time of the year, the degree of heating of the working fluid is not required, as, for example, in severe frosts, when it is necessary to apply to the heating radiators as Hotter water may be required, and the consumption of heated domestic water should be limited.
It should be noted that it is not enough to get heat, for example, in the form of hot water of a given temperature. It is also important how this water will be used, for example, in a heating radiator, and in this sense, the option of introducing heat recovery will be much more preferable than increasing the degree of compression - expansion in a turbocharger, since lowering the water temperature in the radiator in the first case, at least , will be so much less, how many times increases the compressor with increasing compression ratio.
But the thermal power of any radiator is the higher, the lower the decrease in the temperature of the working fluid in it at the same temperature of the working fluid at its inlet.
In this case, regenerative heat, as well as the heat of the air removed from the room, acts as if it were low-grade waste heat, the use of which always leads to an increase in the coefficient of thermal transformation. In this sense, the thermodynamic cycle proposed for implementation has something in common with the model cycle of a gas air refrigeration unit operating under conditions of variable temperatures of heat sources by the Lorentz regenerative cycle shown in Fig.
In connection with the foregoing, the proposed method of heat transformation can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the heat of saturated steam after the compressor is transferred sequentially to several closed circuits of the intermediate water coolant for heat consumers of different temperatures, for example, a water heating system, a heat recovery system at the compressor inlet and a heating system for the air supplied to the heated room, which already replaces the substandard air drawn in by the compressor, than the transfer of heat from water to air in the last two cases is carried out in additional heat and mass transfer apparatus, made according to paragraph 2.
In principle, there can be one closed loop of an intermediate water heat carrier, the water of which passes through all heat consumers sequentially with a gradual decrease in temperature, but it should be borne in mind that if the specific heat of water in the entire operating temperature range remains practically unchanged, then for steam in air at 70 o C it is approximately 10 times greater than at 10 o C, and therefore the heat transfer from the steam-gas to water would occur for large temperature differences and thus large irreversible losses of energy independent about what kind of water consumption was ba set in the circuit.
In different circuits, you can set different water flow rates, and therefore, virtually eliminate irreversible energy losses during heat and mass transfer.
Several contours of the intermediate water coolant also determine additional significant features that can complement the proposed method of heat transformation, namely, that the thermal power of each of the heat consumers and the humidity of the air entering the room are controlled by changing the water flow in the corresponding circuit, including due to full or partial closure of this circuit, for example regenerative, through another consumer of hot water, in particular a shower or bathroom, when using with which the power of the heating system, in particular, is not reduced, for which they turn on the stove for this time and, in particular, combine cooking and pouring hot water, for example, bathtubs.
The simplicity of regulating the heat power and its distribution among consumers is, of course, important, but it is also important that the heat consumption is reduced as much as possible by lowering the temperature of the gas and steam behind the compressor, since, in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics, a narrowing of the temperature range of the cycle leads to increase the thermal transformation coefficient, especially since in this case there is no need to regulate the heat transfer, for example, a heating radiator.
The proposed method of heat transformation allows this to be done by regulating the degree of heat recovery at the compressor inlet, but this is due to a change in the ratio of the volumetric air flow through the compressor and the turbine, which cannot be possible for a given speed of the turbocompressor and pressure behind the compressor. In other words, if a turbocompressor is designed for maximum heat extraction behind the compressor with the highest degree of heat recovery and heat recovery by consumers , then if it is necessary to ensure only air conditioning, the turbine will not be able to let in a new volume of air, it will have to be throttled in addition to the turbine and, naturally, realize an increased transformation ratio by reducing the difference in compressor and turbine operations.
To prevent this from happening, it is proposed to supplement the proposed method of heat transformation with essential features, namely, when heat supply to its consumers is reduced or increased, at the same time, the air volume flow through the turbine increases or decreases, in particular, due to a change in the speed of the turbine shaft compared with compressor shaft revolutions, for which their shafts are mechanically connected to each other through a speed variator.
When transferring a domestic energy center, made according to the proposed method of heat transformation, to summer operation, when the air is taken for the compressor from the street, and in hot weather the air is discharged from the turbine into an air-conditioned room, we encounter a technical contradiction, namely that then when a greater refrigerating effect is needed, it decreases compared to the option for operation in winter conditions, since the heat exchanger for heating the outdoor air ceases to fulfill its functions and the temperature outside and inside the room is almost the same , and therefore the air temperature in front of the turbine, and therefore behind the turbine, increases significantly, not allowing it to be used for a domestic refrigerator and at the same time, it turns out cold enough to directly serve into an air-conditioned room, especially since the air after the turbine becomes dry and requires humidification.
To eliminate this contradiction, the proposed method of heat transformation is proposed to be supplemented with essential features, namely, in the hot season, air after the turbine is passed through a cold consumer, for example, a domestic refrigerator, and then through a heat and mass transfer type external air humidifier, moreover, intake air intake the compressor provides already from the street, and the discharge of substandard air, for example, through the window of an air-conditioned room, in which a slight excess full-time pressure.
In this case, essentially double heat recovery is introduced. The first of them when heating the air at the inlet to the compressor to increase the heating temperature, for example, of household water and shower, and the second when cooling the air in front of the turbine and at the same time heating and humidifying the air at the entrance to the air-conditioned room to lower the temperature in household refrigerator and improve the quality of air conditioning.
Moreover, the properties of the original circuit remain unchanged, since the degree of heat recovery can vary from zero to their maximum values, determined by the power of the heat exchangers. When implementing the proposed method of heat transformation using the entire set of essential features, it becomes possible to create a household energy center that provides the maximum possible coefficient of heat transformation for the entire range of heat and cold needs, changing from changing weather conditions over the season.
In other words, the same installation can always ensure the implementation of the most optimal thermodynamic cycle for any given output parameters with a minimum specific gravity, since all heat exchangers are of the mixing type and of maximum reliability due to the possibility of setting a relatively small degree of pressure increase in the compressor 1.
The proposed method of heat transformation can be implemented in a domestic energy center, the prototype of which is an air-compressor combined installation, taken as a prototype and for the proposed method, consisting of mechanically interconnected mechanical energy source and an air compressor and turbine, as well as a heat exchanger, the input of which in a cooled medium is connected with the compressor outlet, and the outlet with an entrance to the turbine, while its inlet and outlet in a heated medium and the compressor inlet in hot time The years are associated with the external environment atmosphere, river, sea, water tap, etc.
The purpose of the invention, an increase in the heat transfer coefficient of heat will be mainly achieved if the known installation is supplemented with essential features, namely, that water nozzles are installed at the compressor inlet or in its working volumes, connected in series with the condensate collector in the cavity through the cooled medium of the heat exchanger and through a make-up float valve with a water source.
Such an embodiment of the air conditioner will make it possible to convert mechanical energy into internal thermal energy of a compressible gas with its accumulation not due to its heating, but mainly due to the latent heat of evaporation of water, i. Another reason that to a large extent increases the irreversible loss of mechanical energy when it is converted to heat is the temperature difference during heat transfer, with an increase in which irreversible energy losses also increase.
The temperature difference can always be reduced by increasing the area of the walls through which the heat exchange is carried out, but this entails an increase in the weight, size and hydroresistance of the heat exchanger. In order to eliminate this contradiction, the proposed air conditioner can be supplemented with significant design features, namely, that the cavity along the cooled medium of the heat exchanger has an additional cavity, the inlet of which is connected to the condensate water collector, and the outlet through the control valve, water pump and water sprayer installed in the upper part of the main cavity at its exit, while a condensate collector in the lower part at the entrance to it.
In this design of the heat exchanger, the temperature difference is practically eliminated when heat is transferred from the combined gas to water, which, in particular, is necessary for the water heating system and for domestic consumption in the family, since in this case direct heat and mass transfer between the working bodies is ensured, exchanging heat, the contact area between which can be made arbitrarily large when water is supplied in the form of a shower.
Moreover, the super-effect of this method of heat exchange is also evident here, since the walls that limit the volume where the heat and mass transfer takes place become, as it were, incidentally, the walls through which there is direct heating of the air in the room as from a stove , while hot water can be looped through radiators installed in another room. In the end, not only water but also air supplied to the room from the street can be heated from the combined gas compressed in the compressor, and it can be humidified, since the humidity of frosty air is very low.
In this case, the reverse process of heating air from hot water is quite logical, and the proposed air conditioner can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the cavity along the heated medium of the heat exchanger is also made according to paragraph 8 and is connected through additional cavities common to them with a cavity along the cooled medium heat exchanger, moreover, the cavity sprayer along the heated medium of the heat exchanger at its outlet is connected with the cavity water condensate collector along the cooled medium, and we cool the cavity sprayer The medium of the heat exchanger is connected through the pump and the control valve to the condensate collector at the entrance to the cavity through the heated medium of the heat exchanger.
In this case, the additional cavity of the heat exchanger essentially turned into highways, communicating between the cooled and heated cavity of the heat exchanger. The air conditioner can have not only external heat consumers, but also internal one, in particular, the air at the compressor inlet can be a consumer of regenerative heat, which certainly increases the heat transfer coefficient of heat and allows you to adjust the degree of heating of the gas and vapor at a constant degree of increase in air to the compressor, which can be selected relatively small and constant in magnitude regardless of the quantity and quality temperature value of heat consumed.
To ensure this, the air conditioner can be supplemented with essential features, namely that it has several heat exchangers installed in series, including various versions according to clauses 7—9, for example, for transferring heat to different consumers, for example, a water heating system, a system heat recovery and humidification of air at the inlet to the compressor and the heating and humidification system of the air supplied to the heated room.
Regulation of the quantity and quality of heat consumed will inevitably be accompanied by a change in the required ratio of the volumetric flow rates of air through the compressor and the turbine in order to fully use the available energy of the air in front of the turbine, and not to throttle it in addition to the turbine. To ensure regulation of the ratio of the volumetric air flow through the compressor and the turbine, the air conditioner can be supplemented with an essential structural feature, namely that the compressor and the turbine are mechanically connected through the variator.
To a large extent, the thermal transformation coefficient of the air conditioner depends on the efficiency of the compressor and turbine, i. Paddle-type turbochargers are bad in that they have low adiabatic efficiency, especially at low air flow rates that are typical for low-power household power units. Volumetric type turbochargers, for example piston ones, do not have these disadvantages, but have low mechanical efficiency and require a complex and expensive gas distribution mechanism with high hydraulic pressure losses.
In addition, these types of turbochargers produce a lot of noise, the first due to the high air velocities relative to the blades, and the second due to the inertial loads transmitted to the housing from the crank mechanism. This embodiment of the compressor and turbine will exclude any force interaction of the rotors with the housings, eliminate dead volumes of working cavities, and the rotors themselves will play the role of inlet and outlet valves.
Force interaction is possible only on the axes of rotation of the swinging dampers and in the place of contact of the ends of the dampers with the rotors, but the angular velocity is very small on the axes of rotation of the dampers, and a significant contact force of the dampers with the rotors can take place only half the operating time of the compressor and turbine, and it cannot be more mutually exclusive of the inertia forces of the dampers, which are light and are under constant modulus acceleration achieved by the corresponding profile of the cylindrical surface of the rotors, in particular, and It is not technologically advanced for a two-vertex rotor in cross section, a rectangle with semicircles whose diameters coincide with the small sides of the rectangle and close to optimal in terms of achieving maximum efficiency of the turbocharger.
Moreover, the water injected into the compressor working cavities and spontaneously released during expansion of the steam saturated with moisture in the turbine will provide a very low coefficient of friction of the damper against the rotor, including due to the appearance of a hydraulic wedge, which at the same time provides the necessary tightness at the point of contact and gaps the tops of the rotors with the walls of the housing and excluding any wear on the ends of the shutters and the surface of the rotors due to the effect of gliding.
Although the nature of the operation of a turbocharger of this design is cyclical, but all the cycles: suction, compression expansion and pushing, are carried out simultaneously in the same volumes during the rotation of the shaft by o and without any interruption according to the sinusoidal law from zero to maximum that does not exclude the possibility to use dynamically the effects of braking and acceleration in the intake and exhaust lines of the compressor and turbine.
This design is extremely effective for a given constant degree of pressure increase in thermodynamic terms, since it eliminates any air throttling at any stage of compression and expansion, which, together with low friction losses, determines the high efficiency of the compressor and turbine, as well as their noiselessness work, because in the end, noise is usually nothing more than a consequence of irreversible energy loss.
If the air enters into such an aggregate from the side of a cylindrical cavity of a larger volume, this is a compressor, and if from the side of a cylindrical cavity of a smaller volume it is a turbine. The air flow through the compressor and the turbine can be made almost constant in the angle of rotation of the shaft, if each of them is composed of two such units connected in parallel, but with a phase shift of rotation of their shafts by 90 o.
An important advantage of this type of turbocompressor is that its power can vary widely due to a simple change in speed, and without changing the specified thermodynamic cycle of the turbocompressor, which, together with the ability to vary widely the thermodynamic cycle of the entire domestic energy center, determines the extremely high efficiency of the domestic energy center in all the wide range of needs in heat and cold of any quality for all seasons.
In order to stabilize the flow of water in closed circuits of the intermediate heat transfer medium of the heat exchangers and to prevent air throttling, in addition to the turbine through these circuits, the household power unit can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the condensate water collectors of the heat exchangers at the inlet of the mains without a tap and pump have outlet float water level controllers in condensate collectors.
In order to supply the specified relative humidity to the outdoor air to the room, the household power center can be supplemented with a significant feature, namely that a surface type air heater, for example a water heating radiator or an electric heater, is installed at the outlet of the mixing type air heater.
TRIZ recommends not to stop after reaching the goal and consider the internal resources of the system that have arisen in connection with this in order to identify those super-effects that can be obtained by using them without spending these resources necessary to achieve the main goal of the invention.
In the proposed domestic energy center we deal with mechanical energy and electricity, heat and cold. What is useful for family members and, in particular, the housewife in the kitchen can be obtained using these types of energy, at the same time without spending them, i. Let's start with electricity, which is used in an electric heating device to reduce the relative humidity of the air supplied to the room.
After all, you can heat the air not with an electric spiral, but with a voltaic arc and get an additional positive effect, which consists in the appearance of ozone, useful for the lungs, and bright ultraviolet light that kills microbes, and therefore the last significant sign electric heater can be supplemented with the words: for example, based on the use of a volt arc.
Now take the heat that is generated both in the stove and in the proposed household power unit. Where more energy is spent on heating the water by 1 o C Of course, in the stove, about once every
To the smaller, embryonic Central Asian nation states, the new geopolitical realities could offer both economic prosperity as well as worsening instability and conflict. They have divergent goals, but Russia and China have committed to cooperate politically and economically. Their initiatives offer investments and enhanced cooperation in a region beset by economic and political challenges. Poorly handled, however, these initiatives could encourage and entrench local behaviour that risks generating instability and conflict. The SREB aims to open trade routes for China across its vast continental hinterland while creating a zone of security around its troubled western region of Xinjiang. It is an umbrella concept rather than a clear set of projects. The first stage involves multi-billion dollar investments building rail and road links to Central Asia and across it to Iran, Russia, the Caucasus, Turkey, and Europe.
tetracycline over the counter · a fha loan Чтобы для первый суждение кажется, сколько это не беспричинно быстро и важно. также в деревянном доме нужно организовать рабочую стенку толщиной через 10 см, Форсунки гидромассажа быстро обрастают отложениями кальция и их приходится менять.
The tale of how the Android developer spammers sickened, and what came of it Hi, Habr. You need to save water, everyone knows it. This is a useful thing. And in order to stimulate citizens in this good deed, water meters are installed everywhere in our country. And without a counter you pay several times more. The installation process itself looks like this: call the wizard from a certified office, he installs a counter, seals it, signs it and puts a seal in the papers with which you go to a single settlement center, and your counter is registered. Further through the website, or by phone you transmit evidence. But as usual, bloodsuckers and swindlers of various stripes suck on to any good deed. Under the cut, I will tell you about reflection, creative throwing, and the development process, in six parts, with intermission, lyrical digressions and technical details. Part One - Warlike So you set the counters, sealed and submitted information to the Single Window service.
На содержание ребенка алиментные платежи перечисляет супруг, который не проживает совместно с несовершеннолетним. Это регулируется соответствующей статьей Кодекса об административных правонарушениях. Ознакомиться с перечнем вопросов и ответов можно следующим образом: 1. На лицевой стороне указываются личные данные водителя, а на обороте обозначена категория прав, соответствующая обучению. Мы советуем выбирать загранпаспорт нового образца.
Введение в заблуждение должностным лицом. Чтобы выяснить, какой именно отдел решает вопросы с жилищным фондом, нужно обратиться к секретарю главы администрации. Единовременное пособие отличается тем, что выплачивается только один раз, после усыновления.
При встречном разъезде, даже если водитель переключил свет фар на ближний, но вам он кажется слишком ярким, смотрите не на приближающийся автомобиль, а на правую обочину, которая обозначена сплошной линией. Квартиранты, проживающие более 3 месяцев, должны оформить временную прописку в снимаемой квартире (доме). Участниками общества могут быть граждане и юридические лица. Имеет собственное мнение, готова его отстаивать. Каковы законные сроки рассмотрения апелляционной жалобы по уголовному делу.
Нужно ли менять документ. Для тех, которые подают документы для оформления, а сами имеют временную регистрацию, им уже за 120 дней оформляют паспорт, а у тех, которые по работе имеют форму допуска, им положено загранпаспорт в течение 90 дней предоставить. При умеренной помощи от родителей студентам очного отделения, молодые люди отказывают в базовых нуждах. Смонтировать ее в другом помещении тяжело, так как камеры делаются под заказ. После текста претензии ставится дата и подписи с расшифровками всех жильцов, принимавших участие в написании бумаги. Заявление на выдачу дубликата исполнительного акта рассматривается в порядке отдельного заседания. Когда нужно направить сведения в реестр контрактов. Выходное пособие, которое получает мигрант при отставке, увольнении, а также заработная плата, которая сохраняется за сотрудниками в случае ликвидации предприятия.
Пример: Fuel Types typically reference the fuel used to generate the commodity like electricity and ultimately determine the calculated.
Как посмотреть количество поданных заявок на сбербанк аст 44 фз. Стороны могут продлить действие настоящего Договора на условиях, предусмотренных пунктом 2. Там вы можете подписать соглашение о неразглашении. Рекомендуем уточнить у сотрудника принимающего заявление срок рассмотрения.
Но знакомится с материалами дела конечно лучше на месте. Достаточно заполнить форму на специализированном портале и ожидать ответа. Об этом обычно говорят все инструктора в автошколах, новичкам. Почтовое отправление письменной жалобы. Размер платежа при стандартных условиях составляет 300 рублей, при необходимости ускорить процедуру придется заплатить 400 рублей. Если муж не является в суд на развод, и при этом не приводит уважительных причин, не подает ходатайство о перенесении рассмотрения дела, его поведение может быть расценено как неуважение к судье.
Чтобы исключить их из имущества организации, необходимо провести процедуру списания. Все очень довольны городом и возможностью зарабатывать.
Отправьте документы доверенному лицу по почте (например, заказным письмом). Некоторые автомобили, оснащены специальной функцией контроля за смесью, которая позволяет видеть наглядно потребление топлива при ускорении. А это обязывает уделять достаточное количество времени на поиск заказов. При снятии с учета через Госуслуги к электронному заявлению нужно приложить скан-копии указанных документов. Автором рассмотрены отличия приказного производства от других видов гражданского судопроизводства, освещены процессуальные особенности приказного производства в Республике Казахстан. Часто заполняя анкету соискателя работы, у потенциального работника возникают вопросы: как правильно внести данные. Последняя дата актуализации классификатора на нашем сайте - 19.
Для изучения данных уголовного дела не установлено временных лимитов. Пошаговая инструкция временной регистрации в Москве через госуслуги приведена по этой ссылке. Я не могу пойти против его мечты.
Узнайте, как решить именно Вашу проблему - позвоните прямо сейчас или воспользуйтесь формой ниже:
+7 (499) 653-60-72 Доб. 355 Москва и область
+7 (812) 426-14-07 Доб. 525 Санкт-Петербург и область
Это быстро и бесплатно!