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Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Manfred Nowak. The Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Manfred Nowak, undertook a visit to Kazakhstan from 5 to 13 May The Special Rapporteur expresses his appreciation to the Government for the invitation which he interprets as a sign that the country is sincerely interested in an objective assessment of the situation. He notes that, since independence in , Kazakhstan has acceded to numerous international human rights instruments, which illustrates its commitment to reforming the legal framework and policies. At the same time, he noticed that considerable efforts had been made to prepare the various detention facilities and the detainees for his inspections, which contradicts the very idea of independent fact-finding and unannounced visits.

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ПОСМОТРИТЕ ВИДЕО ПО ТЕМЕ: Cоциальное сопровождение семьи с детьми в организации социального обслуживания

обследование условий проживания детей органами опеки

Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Manfred Nowak. The Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Manfred Nowak, undertook a visit to Kazakhstan from 5 to 13 May The Special Rapporteur expresses his appreciation to the Government for the invitation which he interprets as a sign that the country is sincerely interested in an objective assessment of the situation.

He notes that, since independence in , Kazakhstan has acceded to numerous international human rights instruments, which illustrates its commitment to reforming the legal framework and policies. At the same time, he noticed that considerable efforts had been made to prepare the various detention facilities and the detainees for his inspections, which contradicts the very idea of independent fact-finding and unannounced visits. It also makes the task of assessing conditions of detention and torture objectively more difficult.

Whereas the physical conditions and food supply in the prison colonies seem to have been brought into line with international minimum standards in recent years, one of the key requirements of international human rights law — that penitentiary systems put rehabilitation and reintegration rather than the punishment of the individual offender at their core — has not been achieved; the restrictions on contact with the outside world provided by law contradict that very principle.

Another major issue of concern is the fact that the hierarchy among prisoners appears to lead to discriminatory practices and, in some cases, to violence. The same is true for pretrial detention and custody facilities. The pretrial facilities of the Ministry of the Interior, the Committee of National Security and the Ministry of Justice seem to have undergone improvements in terms of physical conditions and food supply; however the almost total denial of contacts with the outside world, often for prolonged periods, clearly contradicts the principle of the presumption of innocence and puts disproportional psychological pressure on suspects.

On the basis of discussions with public officials, judges, lawyers and representatives of civil society, interviews with victims of violence and with persons deprived of their liberty, the Special Rapporteur concludes that the use of torture and ill-treatment certainly goes beyond isolated instances. He received many credible allegations of beatings with hands and fists, plastic bottles filled with sand, police truncheons, and of kicking, asphyxiation with plastic bags and gas masks used to obtain confessions from suspects.

In several cases, these allegations were supported by forensic medical evidence. With regard to the legal framework and safeguards, the Special Rapporteur welcomes the fact that torture has been criminalized, even if the current definition needs to be brought fully into line with the Convention against Torture, and that safeguards are, by and large, provided for by the legislation and formally respected.

In order for the safeguards to be effective, however, the various players in the criminal justice cycle must live up to their responsibilities, close the implementation gap and denounce cases of torture, which is currently not the case. In the light of the above, the Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government of Kazakhstan implement fully its obligations under international human rights law.

In particular, he urges the Government to create an independent and effective national preventive mechanism with the necessary human and other resources and to view it as an ally in the collective effort to discover what really happens in places where people are deprived of their liberty.

He also recommends that the penitentiary system be conceived in a way that truly aims at the rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders. Complaints mechanisms need to be made accessible and credible; a mechanism to investigate promptly and impartially allegations of torture and ill-treatment should be put in place and be independent of the alleged perpetrators; the de facto time of apprehension should be recorded and terms of police custody reduced to international standards; temporary detention isolators should be transferred from the Ministry of the Interior to the Ministry of Justice; and the burden of proof to show that a confession has not been extracted by torture should be transferred to the prosecutor.

The report itself, contained in the annex to the summary, is circulated in the language of submission and in Russian. The appendix to the report is circulated as received. Legal framework International level Regional level National level Assessment of the situation Acts of torture and ill-treatment in places of detention Conditions in places of detention The principle of non-refoulement Underlying causes Punitive penitentiary policies Ineffectiveness of protection mechanisms Weakness of prevention Evaluation of police performance and corruption Conclusions and recommendations Places of detention and interviews conducted The Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Manfred Nowak, undertook a visit to Kazakhstan from 5 to 13 May , at the invitation of the Government.

The purpose of the visit was to assess the situation of torture and ill-treatment in the country, including conditions of detention, and to offer assistance to the Government in its efforts to improve the administration of justice. The Special Rapporteur is fully aware of the fact that Kazakhstan inherited many difficult features of the Soviet criminal justice system, which had a punitive character and were aimed at providing a source of cheap labour rather than at individual rehabilitation.

In spite of this, he notes that Kazakhstan has made progress in institution-building and protecting human rights since its independence in The Special Rapporteur interprets the fact that the Government invited him and provided full access as a sign that it is sincerely interested in an objective assessment of the situation and in recommendations aimed at improving the status quo. He is particularly grateful that, at the outset of his visit, the relevant authorities provided him with letters authorizing him access to all places of detention without prior announcement and to interview detainees in private.

He wishes to thank the Government for the comprehensive information provided to him on statistics regarding the penitentiary system and past cases of torture. At the same time, however, he notes that considerable efforts had been made to prepare detention facilities and the detainees for his inspections. While he assumes that most preparations were well intended, they contradict the very idea of unannounced visits and independent fact-finding.

The latter is only possible if one has the chance to observe day-to-day practices in places of detention in an undistorted way. Unfortunately, this was not the case in most of the places visited in Kazakhstan, since it was clear that the Special Rapporteur was expected by the management of places of detention as well as by the detainees. Many of the places were freshly painted when he arrived; in some colonies, prisoners had been moved out of the quarantine and punishment cells when it became clear that the Special Rapporteur was on his way, concerts without any listeners had been set up, and so on.

He also noted with concern that some of the detainees may have been intimidated into not speaking openly to him. Respect for established fact-finding methods, including unannounced visits, is of utmost importance not only because it is crucial for a full assessment of the situation; it is also of particular significance in the light of the recent ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture, which foresees the establishment of a national preventive mechanism, a body independent from the Government mandated to undertake unannounced visits to all places of detention at any time and to speak in private with all persons deprived of their liberty.

Whereas this constitutes a decisive step forward, it will be fully effective only if fact-finding methods are fully respected in practice and their independence is guaranteed. In addition, the Special Rapporteur met with the Head of the Penitentiary Administration, the Secretary of the Human Rights Commission under the President, representatives of the Ministry of Health Care and staff members of all the institutions visited.

The Special Rapporteur visited Astana, Almaty, Karaganda and surrounding regions, and inspected a variety of places of detention, including colonies, police posts, a temporary isolator for minors and psychiatric hospitals see appendix. Owing to time constraints, he was unable to visit more regions.

The Special Rapporteur also met with the Chairman of the Supreme Court, the Human Rights Commissioner, civil society representatives, including non-governmental organizations, people in places of detention and victims of violence. In addition, he held meetings with the United Nations country team, representatives of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE , the delegation of the European Commission, and other members of the diplomatic community.

The Special Rapporteur expresses his gratitude to the Office of the Resident Coordinator and the entire United Nations team for the invaluable assistance prior to and throughout the mission, including interpreters and drivers; Dr.

The Special Rapporteur shared his preliminary findings with the Government at the close of his mission. On 4 November , a preliminary version of the present report was forwarded to the Government, to which it responded on 4 December The Special Rapporteur wishes to thank the authorities for their comprehensive and constructive response.

Kazakhstan is party to the main United Nations human rights treaties prohibiting torture and ill-treatment, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

Kazakhstan is party to the Geneva Conventions of and to the Additional Protocols thereto of It is particularly noteworthy that, in October , Kazakhstan ratified the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture. However, in accordance with article 24 of the Optional Protocol, the Government intends to make a declaration postponing the implementation of their obligations since the law establishing the NPM is still being discussed. Kazakhstan is a participating State in OSCE, and is expected to hold the chairmanship of that body in By participating in OSCE, Kazakhstan has undertaken numerous political commitments in the field of human rights.

It is also party to regional agreements, mainly in the field of security cooperation, such as the Convention on Judicial Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family and Criminal Cases and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Section II of the Constitution of Kazakhstan lists a number of human rights, including the right to life, non-discrimination, freedoms of religion, conscience and speech, and to the protection of health. The prohibition of torture is enshrined in article Furthermore, article 16 grants the right to personal freedom, sets the legal time limit for police custody at 72 hours, and contains provisions for legal aid and the right to appeal.

Torture is outlawed by article of the criminal code. Its definition is more restrictive than the one contained in article 1 of the Convention against Torture, as it limits criminal responsibility to public officials and does not criminalize torture committed by any other person acting in an official capacity or by individuals acting at the instigation or with the consent or acquiescence of public officials.

This is to be highly encouraged. There are a number of other provisions of the criminal code under which law enforcement officials can be prosecuted for ill-treatment.

Domestic legislation does not contain any provisions implementing the principle of universal jurisdiction in accordance with articles 5 2 and 7 of the Convention against Torture. Article They should not be subjected to cruel or degrading treatment. It also provides that detention must not be accompanied by acts intended to cause physical or mental suffering of a person suspected or accused of a crime. Code articles 14 2 and 68 3 1 provide that a suspect cannot be held for more than 72 hours without a court decision.

According to article of the code, a protocol must be issued. Subsequently, the document must be read to the detained person, including an explanation of his or her rights, which must be signed by the detainee.

Article 1 of the code requires the responsible officer to inform the prosecutor of the detention in writing 12 hours after the detention protocol has been compiled. Article 49 of the criminal code specifies these crimes. An indefinite presidential moratorium on the death penalty entered into force on 1 January According to official sources, the last execution of a death penalty took place on 1 December The last death sentence was pronounced on 31 August On 6 December , the remaining 31 death sentences were commuted to life imprisonment.

The Special Rapporteur received allegations of ill-treatment and corporal punishment in penitentiary institutions. According to some accounts, rape by fellow inmates is used to pressure prisoners. He is very concerned about allegations that some people were sent there following meetings with him during his visit.

The Special Rapporteur received consistent descriptions of how the personnel, with the support of convicts cooperating with the management, beat newcomers and would forcibly insert a rubber tube into their anus, officially for medical and hygiene purposes.

There were also reports of rape. This treatment is exacerbated by the fact that many of the people arriving in the hospital are ill. Detainees in several institutions indicated that they were so afraid of going back to the prison hospital that they would rather not get any medical treatment at all. In spite of the fact that his fact-finding was hampered by preparations and intimidation of detainees, he received many credible allegations of beatings with hands and fists, plastic bottles filled with sand and police truncheons, and of kicking, asphyxiation with plastic bags and gas masks, to obtain confessions from suspects.

Torture and ill-treatment are most often inflicted in such a way as to avoid making visible marks by beating on soles and kidneys with flexible tools and frequently accompanied by threats to add additional charges to the one the person is suspected of, which would prolong the prison terms.

Also, many threats against family members were reported. As a result of such cases, five people committed suicide. These cases were investigated and brought before military tribunals: one case resulted in a one year conditional sentence, another in a four year prison term; in two cases, the harassers were sentenced to six years of imprisonment; and in another case, a decision is still pending.

Labor Code

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