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Originally established in as a minor town, Moscow grew to become a prosperous and powerful city that served as the capital of the Grand Duchy that bears its namesake. When the Grand Duchy of Moscow evolved into the Tsardom of Russia , Moscow still remained as the political and economic center for most of the Tsardom's history. When the Tsardom was reformed into the Russian Empire , the capital was moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg , diminishing the influence of the city. When the Soviet Union dissolved, Moscow remained as the capital city of the contemporary and newly-established Russian Federation.

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Originally established in as a minor town, Moscow grew to become a prosperous and powerful city that served as the capital of the Grand Duchy that bears its namesake. When the Grand Duchy of Moscow evolved into the Tsardom of Russia , Moscow still remained as the political and economic center for most of the Tsardom's history. When the Tsardom was reformed into the Russian Empire , the capital was moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg , diminishing the influence of the city.

When the Soviet Union dissolved, Moscow remained as the capital city of the contemporary and newly-established Russian Federation. As the northernmost and coldest megacity in the world, and with a history that dates over eight centuries, Moscow is governed as a federal city that serves as the political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia and Eastern Europe.

As an alpha world city , [19] Moscow has one of the world's largest urban economies , and is one of the most expensive cities in the world , and is also one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world. The Moscow International Business Center is one of largest financial centres of Europe and the world, and features some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers. As the cultural centre of Russia, Moscow served as the home of Russian artists, scientists, and sports figures due to the presence of its numerous museums, academic and political institutions and theatres.

The city is home to several UNESCO World Heritage Sites , and is well known for its architecture and its display of Russian architecture , particularly its historic buildings such as the Saint Basil's Cathedral , the Red Square , and the Moscow Kremlin , [23] [24] of which the latter serves as the seat of power of the Government of Russia.

Moscow is served by a comprehensive transit network, which includes four international airports , [27] [28] nine railway terminals, a tram system , a monorail system , and most notably the Moscow Metro , the busiest metro system in Europe, and one of the largest rapid transit systems in the world. The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several pre-Slavic tribes which originally inhabited the area, called the river supposedly Mustajoki , in English: Black river.

It has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, later it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th—17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy and muscovite. Various other theories of Celtic , Iranian , Caucasic origins , having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.

Moscow is also one of the twelve Hero Cities. The oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic Period Schukinskaya site on the Moscow River. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered the burial ground of the Fatyanovskaya culture , the site of the Iron Age settlement of the Dyakovo culture , on the territory of the Kremlin , Sparrow Hills , Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc.

In the 9th century, the Oka River was part of the Volga trade route , and the upper Volga watershed became an area of contact between the indigenous Finno-Ugric such as the Merya and the expanding Volga Bulgars particularly the second son of Khan Kubrat who expanded the borders of the Old Great Bulgaria , Scandinavian Varangians and Slavic peoples.

The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi. By AD , a minor settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference [ which? At the time it was a minor town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. In , Knjaz Yury Dolgoruky fortified the town with a timber fence and a moat.

In the course of the Mongol invasion of Rus , the Mongols under Batu Khan burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants. Daniel was still a child at the time, and the big fort was governed by tiuns deputies , appointed by Daniel's paternal uncle, Yaroslav of Tver.

Daniel came of age in the s and became involved in the power struggles of the principality with lasting success, siding with his brother Dmitry in his bid for the rule of Novgorod.

From he acted as the ruler of an independent principality alongside Dmitry, who became Grand Duke of Vladimir. Daniel has been credited with founding the first Moscow monasteries, dedicated to the Lord's Epiphany and to Saint Daniel.

Daniel ruled Moscow as Grand Duke until and established it as a prosperous city that would eclipse its parent principality of Vladimir by the s.

On the right bank of the Moskva River, at a distance of five miles 8. Daniel-Stylite, which is now the Danilov Monastery. Daniel died in , at the age of Before his death, he became a monk and, according to his will, was buried in the cemetery of the St. Daniel Monastery. Moscow was quite stable and prosperous for many years and attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia. The Rurikids maintained large landholdings by practicing primogeniture , whereby all land was passed to the eldest sons, rather than dividing it up among all sons.

By , Yury of Moscow contested with Mikhail of Tver for the throne of the principality of Vladimir. Ivan I eventually defeated Tver to become the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol rulers, making Moscow the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal.

By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan. While the Khan of the Golden Horde initially attempted to limit Moscow's influence, when the growth of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began to threaten all of Russia, the Khan strengthened Moscow to counterbalance Lithuania, allowing it to become one of the most powerful cities in Russia. Afterwards, Moscow took the leading role in liberating Russia from Mongol domination. In , Ivan III had finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control, and Moscow became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of Russia and Siberia , and parts of many other lands.

He began fighting the Tatars, enlarged the territory of Muscovy, and enriched his capital city. By it had a population of , and was one of the largest cities in the world. He conquered the far larger principality of Novgorod to the north, which had been allied to the hostile Lithuanians.

Thus he enlarged the territory sevenfold, from , to 2,, square kilometres , to 1,, square miles. He took control of the ancient " Novgorod Chronicle " and made it a propaganda vehicle for his regime. The original Moscow Kremlin was built in the 14th century. It was reconstructed by Ivan, who in the s invited architects from Renaissance Italy , such as Petrus Antonius Solarius , who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marco Ruffo who designed the new palace for the prince.

The Kremlin walls as they now appear are those designed by Solarius, completed in The Kremlin's Great Bell Tower was built in —08 and augmented to its present height in In —, the Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin Novy arranged for the construction of a moat in front of the eastern wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya.

This moat, known as the Alevizov moat and having a length of metres 1, feet , width of 36 metres feet , and a depth of 9. However, in , two fires destroyed much of the town, and in the Crimean Tatars captured Moscow , burning everything except the Kremlin. The Crimean Tatars attacked again in , but this time was held back by new defence walls, built between and by a craftsman named Fyodor Kon. In , an outer earth rampart with 50 towers was erected around the city, including an area on the right bank of the Moscow River.

As an outermost line of defence, a chain of strongly fortified monasteries was established beyond the ramparts to the south and east, principally the Novodevichy Convent and Donskoy , Danilov , Simonov , Novospasskiy , and Andronikov monasteries, most of which now house museums.

From its ramparts, the city became poetically known as Bielokamennaya , the "White-Walled". The limits of the city as marked by the ramparts built in are now marked by the Garden Ring. Three square gates existed on the eastern side of the Kremlin wall, which in the 17th century, were known as Konstantino-Eleninsky, Spassky, Nikolsky owing their names to the icons of Constantine and Helen, the Saviour and St.

Nicholas that hung over them. The Russian famine of —03 killed perhaps , in Moscow. In , the people of Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities conducted by prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin rose against the Polish occupants, besieged the Kremlin, and expelled them. In , the Zemsky sobor elected Michael Romanov tsar, establishing the Romanov dynasty. The 17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of Moscow from the Polish—Lithuanian invaders , the Salt Riot , the Copper Riot , and the Moscow Uprising of During the first half of the 17th century, the population of Moscow doubled from roughly , to , It expanded beyond its ramparts in the later 17th century.

By , there were households established north of the ramparts, by Ukrainians and Belarusians abducted from their hometowns in the course of the Russo-Polish War — These new outskirts of the city came to be known as the Meshchanskaya sloboda , after Ruthenian meshchane "town people". The entire city of the late 17th century, including the slobodas that grew up outside the city ramparts, are contained within what is today Moscow's Central Administrative Okrug.

Numerous disasters befell the city. The plague epidemics ravaged Moscow in —, and — Fires burned out much of the wooden city in and Moscow ceased to be Russia's capital, except for a brief period from to under the influence of the Supreme Privy Council.

After losing the status as the capital of the empire, the population of Moscow at first decreased, from , in the 17th century to , in But after , the population grew more than tenfold over the remaining duration of the Russian Empire, reaching 1. The — Russian plague killed up to , people in Moscow. By , the building of cobbled roads had begun. In November , the permanent street light was introduced, and by many streets had a gaslight. In , near the Prechistinskiye Gates, arc lamps were installed.

In Moscow was surrounded by a barricade 25 miles 40 kilometres long, the Kamer-Kollezhskiy barrier, with 16 gates at which customs tolls were collected. Between and the Mytischinskiy water-pipe the first in Russia was built. In , following the destruction of much of the city during the French occupation, a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moscow was established. It launched a great program of rebuilding, including a partial replanning of the city-centre.

In the Moskvoretskaya water-supply was completed. In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. From this gate, wooden and following the 17th-century improvements stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns — "raskats". The Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto.

The road connecting Moscow with St. Petersburg, now the M10 highway , was completed in , its Moscow end following the old Tver road, which had existed since the 16th century. It became known as Peterburskoye Schosse after it was paved in the s. Petrovsky Palace was built in — by Matvey Kazakov. When Napoleon invaded Russia in , the Moscovites were evacuated. It is suspected that the Moscow fire was principally the effect of Russian sabotage.

As many as , of Napoleon's soldiers died during this time. Moscow State University was established in

KREMLIN AT MOSCOW ANTIQUE ENGRAVING MOSCOW ARCHITECTURE Kunstdrucke Antiquitäten & Kunst

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How to Get a Police Certificate - Russia

You should apply in person to your regional Information Centre of the Ministry of Internal Affairs available in Russian only. You may also give a representative power of attorney to apply on your behalf. You can apply to the Consular Section of your nearest Embassy of Russia. The Embassy accepts only original police certificates. Print-outs of online search results and electronic certificates are not acceptable. You will not receive a reply. Skip to main content Skip to "About government". How to get a Police Certificate:. If you are a citizen of Russia:.

Оплата труда в районах с неблагоприятным климатом согласно ст. Поэтому как только Вы зарегистрируетесь по новому месту жительства, сведения об этом будут отправлены территор. Именно поэтому одной из задач государства является разнообразная поддержка и помощь таким семьям совершенно во всех вопросах и направлениях. Возможно и изъятие продукции.

Покупатель вставляет карточку в терминал, проводит через магнитный считыватель или прикладывает. То есть накладная по форме М-15 вполне может сопутствовать передаче материалов сторонней организации посредством реализации. Цены на госпошлины в 2019 году.

Подошло мое электронное время и меня вызвали по фамилии. Оператор использует всю амплитуду возможностей для удовлетворения потребностей собственных клиентов. Если продавец отказывает принять, то попросите чтоб она связалась с владельцем магазина чтоб он дал разрешение на возврат. Этот тест определяет уровень безопасности кресла и выявляет, соответствует ли он требованиям. Присутствуют вычеты, которые имеют право получить все работающие лица, имеющие детей и принимавшие участие в определенных событиях.

Если наследник получил право на долю в наследстве по закону, то ему придется доказать что он является родственником и принадлежит к определенной очереди наследников. В случае пропуска данного периода также предусмотрена определённая ответственность, в соответствии с 20. В русскоязычных странах такой высокой конкуренции нет, поэтому и реклама значительно дешевле. При составлении трудовых отношений, преданность на всю жизнь единому предприятию законодательством не предусматривается, поэтому, отставка по собственной прихоти после многолетнего труда на фирме, не будет считаться чрезвычайным событием. Нет она ни чего не имеет собственник квартиры только вы а она может быть в ней только зарегистрирована у вас есть на квартиру свидетельство о праве собственности.

Do I need to provide a Police Certificate with my Application for Permanent Residence? Yes. Name of document(s) to get: Reference certificate.

Между людьми составляется договор найма, причем за счет отсутствия дохода арендодатель может избежать необходимости уплачивать налоги. И как за эти 2 месяца подготовить подушку безопасности себе,детям и родителям-ума не приложу…(( Сколько же нас. Провели операцию, удалили часть легкого. Все положения действующего законодательства дают понять, что больничный перед увольнением при отработке никак не влияет на дату расторжения договора.

Обратитесь в горздрав, росздравнадзор. Номер расположен над штрих-кодом и представляет собой 16-значное число. Подготовить необходимый пакет документов (см. Получение той или иной информации позволит сделать вывод о том, стоит ли сотрудничать с ним и какие пункты окажутся нелишними при заключении договора. В некоторых ситуация разрешается носить уменьшенную копию знака.

Если бланк был утерян или пришел в негодность в специальном окне нужно указать его номер. Суд также принял во внимание, что соглашение о новации было заключено лишь спустя полгода после расторжения договора, а контрагент компании по первоначальному обязательству включен в реестр ее кредиторов.

Подавать иск следует по месту проживания ответчика. Учитывая важность вопроса обеспечения детей средствами существования, сразу отметим несколько моментов. Вот там вас и завалить могут. В какой срок может быть осуществлен возврат дивана, не имеющего нареканий к качеству. Документы, подтверждающие право заявителя на получение повторного свидетельства (справки) о государственной регистрации акта гражданского состояния.

В России в 2019 году также как во всем мире будут отмечать в третье воскресенье июня. Но это не значит, что индивидуального номера у них. Дождитесь письменного уведомления о принятом решении. Продлевается ли отпуск при больничном с ребенком.

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