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У какого транспорта скорость движения максимальная

The invention relates to automated systems for identifying mobile vehicles, monitoring and controlling their movement, and can be used, in particular, for monitoring and dispatching traffic control of urban routed vehicles. A device for controlling the movement of vehicles is known, which comprises trip sensors, shift registers, an electronic clock, a shift time setting unit and a display unit. The device provides traffic control directly on the line and the operational elimination of failures in the traffic schedule, however, it does not allow to determine the location of the vehicle on the route with a given reliability, that is, a real assessment of the operational situation on the route is virtually eliminated. Failures that occur on the route are detected only after some time, determined by the duration of the cycle and the time elapsed from the moment the route sensor passed until the failure occurred.

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ПОСМОТРИТЕ ВИДЕО ПО ТЕМЕ: Билеты ПДД 2020. Скорость движения. Видеокурс Правила дорожного движения

Translation of "допустимой" in English

The invention relates to automated systems for identifying mobile vehicles, monitoring and controlling their movement, and can be used, in particular, for monitoring and dispatching traffic control of urban routed vehicles. A device for controlling the movement of vehicles is known, which comprises trip sensors, shift registers, an electronic clock, a shift time setting unit and a display unit.

The device provides traffic control directly on the line and the operational elimination of failures in the traffic schedule, however, it does not allow to determine the location of the vehicle on the route with a given reliability, that is, a real assessment of the operational situation on the route is virtually eliminated.

Failures that occur on the route are detected only after some time, determined by the duration of the cycle and the time elapsed from the moment the route sensor passed until the failure occurred.

In addition, the accuracy of determining the location of the vehicle and the intervals of movement depends on the number of route sensors installed in the path, so this device allows you to get only visual information about the location of the vehicle on the route and the intervals of movement in real time only if there are a large number of route sensors [ one].

A device for monitoring the movement of vehicles, containing route sensors, on a vehicle is a signal receiver, a sensor code generator, a traveled sensor, at a control point, a signal reception and separation unit, a movement direction decoder, a switch, a register unit and an indication unit. The disadvantage of this device is the inability to transmit information to a control point without distracting the driver from basic duties and the low reliability of the device [2].

A device for monitoring the movement of vehicles, including route sensors, on a vehicle — a signal receiver, a sensor code driver, a traveled sensor, at a control point — a signal reception and separation unit, a matching unit, a shift pulse generator, a motion direction decoder, a switch, registers, display unit. Trip sensors emit frequency-modulated signals in the near field; when the vehicle is in the coverage area of the route sensor, the signal receiver receives, demodulates and amplifies these signals, then they go to the sensor code generator, which resets the sensor of the distance traveled from the previous sensor.

Data on the route sensor, the number of unit segments of the path traveled from this sensor, and on the command transmitted by the driver to the control unit are sent to the coding unit.

The coordination unit synchronizes the operation of the entire device, dividing the processes of reception and transmission in time and implementing the process of managing information processing.

After receiving and separating the signals, the route sensor code enters the decoder. When the vehicle moves, a series of route sensors the first, second, This information is fed to the inputs of the motion direction decoder and the information recording control switch. Accordingly, in the display unit lights that simulate the movement of the vehicle. The location of the vehicle is determined taking into account the direction of movement, the number of the last traveled route sensor and the length of a single segment of the path and is displayed on each section of the route.

When one of the previously programmed commands is transmitted from the vehicle, the corresponding lamp of the display unit lights up. The advantage of this device is that information from the vehicle to the control point is automatically transmitted over the air without distraction of the driver [3]. A device for monitoring the movement of vehicles containing route sensors on a vehicle is a receiver, counters, a memory unit, a parallel to serial code converter, a transmitter, and a receiver at a control point.

When a vehicle passes through a control point, an encoded signal from the sensor is received, while the counter generates a record address in the block corresponding to the number of the control point on the route, the time stamp counter is recorded at this address, i.

The counter by the generator signals continuously generates the read addresses of the memory block, as a result, all its cells are cyclically polled, their contents are converted into a serial code, and this information, together with the identifier of each vehicle, is fed to the transmitter input.

When the vehicle arrives at the final destination, the information transmitted from the vehicle is received by the receiver and transmitted through the communication line to the computer complex. Thus, this device, compared to the previous one, due to the use of the computer complex allows to increase the speed and information capacity of the system, however, the used wired communication lines between the route end points and the computer complex have low quality communication channels, frequent damage and low throughput compared to radio channels [4].

The closest in technical essence, selected as a prototype, is a device for monitoring the movement of vehicles containing route sensors, a central control center DPC with a two-channel transceiver and mobile units PE , each of which has a distance sensor, a transceiver, control unit, digital-to-analog converter, speech input-output unit telephone with tangent and tube holder sensors and an indicator of deviation from the graph, the inputs and outputs of the transceiver and through radio channels connected to the inputs and outputs of the transceiver of the central control center and route sensors.

The DAC monitors the location of all vehicles on the route in the "Request-response" mode, alternately sending codes on the first channel, each of which contains a start message, vehicle number code, a deviation from the schedule, and a voice call command. In response, the vehicle either transmits a response codegram containing a marker code, a location code, and a voice call command through the first channel, or receives a codegram from one of the route sensors in the coverage area of which it is located via the third channel.

At the same time, the starting package is checked and the information is decrypted. After receiving the response code of the vehicle on the DAC, the location of the corresponding vehicle on the route and the current time are fixed during the exchange of information. The resulting deviation of the actual time from the planned one is transmitted to the vehicle in the next information transfer session, where it is displayed on the indicator.

If the vehicle receives a voice call command on the vehicle, an audible alarm is triggered if the signals from the sensors tangent and the tube holder correspond to the lowered position of the telephone receiver on the vehicle, and the driver negotiates with the dispatcher by telephone on the second transmission and reception channel.

After a communication session, the dispatcher generates a reset command. If the initiator of the voice communication is the driver, he sends a call command to the DAC, and the dispatcher, after receiving the communication request, calls the corresponding vehicle [5].

The problem is solved as follows. The new technical result consists in the fact that the control unit on the mobile unit is made on the microcontroller, there is a microcontroller as part of the control center equipment, and a file server is used at the central control center, integrated into a local area network with a communication channel adapter and automated workstations of dispatchers and support staff, which allows to increase the flexibility, mobility of the system and expand its functionality through the use of new algorithms information processing, to organize the simultaneous operation of multiple controllers and radio modem to communicate with other users and sources of information; automation of information exchange processes between devices of a mobile unit UPE , KP and TsDP, application of paperless technology only the final document is issued - payroll sheet and accounting documents on fuel consumption, PE mileage, etc.

Thus, the listed set of features in comparison with the prototype allows you to expand the functionality of the system, improve the quality of supervisory control of ground routed transport and reduce the time required to assist passengers and the driver in case of emergency. Analysis of known technical solutions allows us to conclude that the claimed technical solution is not known from the prior art, which indicates its compliance with the criterion of "novelty.

The essence of the claimed invention for a specialist does not follow explicitly from the prior art, which allows us to conclude that it meets the criterion of "inventive step". The possibility of using the proposed method in the dispatch control system of urban transport allows us to conclude that it meets the criterion of "industrial applicability". The essence of the proposed system of supervisory control of land transport is illustrated by drawings, where in FIG.

The supervisory control system of ground transport see Fig. The panel of the UPE control and indication panel see Fig. Trip sensors are located over short distances for example, several tens or hundreds of meters , they only emit their code number, according to which the control unit 5 determines the coordinate of the transmitter to correct the readings of the track and speed sensor in order to avoid errors arising, for example, as a result of skidding wheels. The central control room operates in parallel and independently in two modes - automatic and dispatch control.

In automatic mode, the far channel transceiver 12 on the DAC under the control of the communication channel adapter 14 continuously polls all the control points, receives information about the movement parameters along the routes of the moving units and their technical condition, and the file server 16 and the ARMD computers included in the local computer network 18 Each control point is an active repeater with the accumulation of information.

The transceiver 9 near the radio channel of the control point under the control of the microcontroller 11 continuously performs a cyclic scan of the control zone and sequentially polls all the UEs located in the control zone. The UPU transceiver 2 is constantly turned on for reception and transmits information only at the request of a checkpoint or dispatcher through the CP.

If the PE code located in the control zone of the control unit coincides as evidenced by the on state of the indicator 20 when the control unit is in the control zone of the control unit on the panel of the control unit 3 of the control unit , the request code transceiver 2 unit under control of control unit 5 transmits telemetry information to the control unit about the parameters of the movement of the PE for example, the number of the PE, the number of the route, the number of the order in the route, the number of the control point passed by the last and at least two numbers of the previous control points to determine the direction of movement, average speed of movement in sections, maximum speed, distance traveled, signs of the occurrence or absence of an accident or attack, call of the dispatcher by the driver of the PE and the end of the voice communication session , technical condition of the PE for example, loading, average fuel consumption, malfunctions, etc.

After transmitting the message, the UPE transceiver 2 again goes into receive mode. The transceiver 9 of the short-range radio channel of the KP receives information from the UPE, the microcontroller 11 encodes it individually for the given KP code, and the transceiver 10 of the distant radio channel of the KP transmits this information to the DAC. The transceiver 12 of the distant radio channel of the DAC receives the information packet, the adapter 14 of the communication channels converts it and transfers it to a file server 16, which processes the received information, calculates the deviation of the actual time of arrival of the transmitter in the control unit from the planned one, then the information about the deviation from the schedule along with the signal of success the exchange of information acknowledgment signal is converted by the adapter 14 communication channels and transmitted by the transmitter 12 of the distant radio channel to the transmitter through the gearbox, resulting in a panel 3 of the control and display UPE indicator 23 displays the deviation of the actual time of arrival at the checkpoint from the planned one and turns on indicator 22 of the successful exchange of information between the UPE and the DAC.

After this, the survey of the control zone of the control unit continues in ascending order of the numbers of the control units. If several control units are located in the control zone of the control unit, then the control unit is interrogated in ascending order of their numbers. Since response messages are generated only after receiving a request by their number, the possibility of simultaneous emission of signals from several UEs is excluded, and thereby the possibility of failures caused by overlapping information is excluded.

If there are no UEs in the control zone of the control unit, a continuous sequential cyclic interrogation of this area and transmission to the DAC of messages about the absence of control units at this control unit are transmitted. The equipment of the near radio channel has a range of about m. This allows the use of low power transmitters, which reduces the cost of the system and ensures compliance with sanitary standards for radio emissions.

In addition, an increase in the radius of action of the transmitters, and hence the control zone of the control unit, would lead to a decrease in the accuracy of determining the location of the UE. The indicated value of the control zone is sufficient for several PEs in it at the same time and does not require an exact stop at a certain point and precise orientation of the PEs.

Information packages are transmitted by an anti-interference code with the detection and correction of errors, which can significantly increase the noise immunity of the transmitted information. After successfully receiving information on the DAC, an acknowledgment signal is sent to the PE in the response message. In the absence of an acknowledgment signal from the transmitter, a second request is sent.

With a prolonged absence of an acknowledgment signal, a conclusion is made about a malfunction of the KP or UPE equipment, which is signaled to the dispatcher to take measures to eliminate violations of the system. In the dispatch control mode, which is carried out in parallel and independently with the automatic one, the dispatcher, using the automated workplace 18 i , calls the driver of any control unit for voice communication, either all drivers of a certain route, or all drivers located in the coverage area of a certain control unit, or with a circular call - all drivers to change the schedule, route, number of cars on the route, depending on changes in passenger flow for example, during public events , when weather conditions change for example, a decrease speed when ice, rain, etc.

The final document is a statement of wages and accounting documents on fuel consumption, PE mileage, etc. When calling drivers who are in the coverage area of a specific control unit, the dispatcher dials the control unit number on the ARM 18 i keyboard, sending a call signal to several drivers. Their transceivers receive a call signal, an audible alarm sounds, and drivers await the dispatcher's voice message.

With a circular call of all drivers, the dispatcher's message is converted by an analog-to-digital converter 13 and recorded in the memory of the file server 16; for those drivers who are in the areas of control points, there is a call signal for voice communication, their transceivers receive a dispatcher message.

For UE drivers who are at the time of sending a circular message between the CP, after their arrival and recognition in the coverage area of any CP, a call signal is transmitted to the voice communication, a message is extracted from the memory of the file server 16, converted by the adapter 14 of the communication channels into an interference-proof code with detection and correction of errors and is transmitted by the transceiver 12 of the distant radio channel as part of the information parcels to these UEs through the KP.

When calling a driver of a specific control unit for voice communication, the dispatcher on the ARMD 18 i remote control dials the number of the required control unit and, as part of the information package, transmits a call signal through the control unit in the area of which this control unit is located.

The UPE transceiver 2 is normally set to receive mode, on the UPU control and indication panel 3, the call indicator 21 from the dispatcher lights up and the call signal sounds.

When this analog-to-digital Converter 13, the speech is converted to digital form, and as part of the information packages generated by the file server 16, it is converted by the adapter 14 into an interference-proof code with error detection and correction for example, the Reed-Solomon code , which is emitted by the far transceiver 12 of the DPC radio channel, received by the receiver 10 of the KP distant radio channel, converted by the KP microcontroller 11, emitted by the transceiver 9 of the near KP radio channel, received by the transceiver 2 of the mobile unit if its number coincides with the number transmitted in the message , is converted by the action of the control unit 5, CPU 6 and the digital to analog converter is input to an input 8-output speech CPU.

The driver hears a dispatcher message. If the driver needs to contact the dispatcher, the driver presses the dispatcher call button 26, which is fixed by the control unit 5 and, as part of the telemetric part of the information package see Fig. The dispatcher receives a call signal and enables voice communication. At the end of the communication session, the driver presses the button 27 on the remote control 3 control and display UPE.

In the event of an emergency for example, an attack on the driver or an emergency , the driver of the PE presses the corresponding button on the control and display panel of the UPE for signaling an emergency situation - button 25, for signaling an attack - button 24 , and calling it through the CP, in the coverage area of which it is located, is relayed to the DAC. The signal is transmitted multiple times so that it can be received with a higher probability. For stable reception from any point of the route even outside the control zone , as well as outside the route, emergency signals or an attack on the driver, either a short-term increase in transmitter power or the transmission of a shortened information package with signs of an accident or attack via an additional channel, characteristics which provide reliable reception of these signals to the CP for their further transmission to the DAC via a distant radio channel.

All signals, including speech, are transmitted in digital form by an anti-interference code with temporary compression by start-stop packets with a repetition rate equal to the sampling frequency of the speech signal. The information package contains see FIG. As part of a telemetric package from the DAC to the UPE, for example, the code of the CP number, PE number, deviation from the schedule, the presence or absence of a sign of a call to voice communication, successful exchange of information is transmitted.

The transmission period T is inversely proportional to the sampling frequency of the speech signal. The speech channel is duplex. Effective date : FIELD: automatic traffic control systems. In addition device has checkpoints, each of which has short and long range transmitters which are connected to microcontroller. Central dispatching station has communication channels interface, digital-to-analog converter, voice communication unit, analog-to- digital converter.

In addition device has local-area network which has file-server channel interface unit and workstations for dispatchers and service personnel. Control unit of each city line carrier is designed using microcontroller.

EFFECT: simultaneous operations of several dispatchers, radio connection to other information sources and receivers using modems, automatic information exchange between carriers, checkpoints and central dispatching station, increased speed, quality and validity of information processing, possibility of voice communication between driver and dispatcher without interruption of telemetry information transmission.

The system according to claim 1, characterized in that the control unit on the mobile unit is made on a microcontroller. RUC1 en. USB1 en. USB2 en. Node-to node messaging transceiver network with dynamic routing and configuring. DET2 en. USA en. Apparatus for automatically distributing calls between users and a fleet of mobile stations through a central station.

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average скорость движения по участкам, максимальная скорость, пройденный путь, признаки возникновения или отсутствия аварии или нападения.

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Bus route 0 on the map of Moscow

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Способы обращения в Роспотребнадзор: Если требуется проконсультироваться со специалистом, то можно позвонить на бесплатную горячую линию по номеру 8 (800) 100-00-04. Через некоторое время арендатор попросил внести в договор еще одно помещение. Отключили свет: куда звонить и что делать. Инвалидность подтверждается в суде путем предоставления заключения из Медико-социальной экспертизы. Вы не должны взламывать, пытаться взломать или получить доступ или иным образом пытаться обойти систему безопасности Компании. Размер данной выплаты невелик и находится на уровне 450 рублей.

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ВИДЕО ПО ТЕМЕ: Занятие 10. Расположение транспортных средств на дороге, скорость движения
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